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    北京化工大学材导重点修改最终版(原版为两福建同学整理) by khalilniu

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    1、Module 1: 1-1Understand the following terms (a) engineering materials: a term often loosely used to define most materials that go into products and systems. (b) engineering materials technology: covers fields of applied science related to materials, materials processing(处理,加工), and the many engineer。

    2、ing specialties(特性) dealing with materials, such as research and development, design, manufacturing, construction, and maintenance(维护,保持). (c) materials: the matter of the universe which have properties that make them useful in structures, machines, devices(装置), products and systems. (d) materials s。

    3、cience: (e) materials engineering: deals with the synthesis(合成) and used of knowledge in properties, processing and behavior, prepare, modify(修饰), and apply materials to specific needs. (f) materials science and engineering: a major field of study, which involves the generation and application of kn。

    4、owledge relating the composition(构成), structure(结构), and processing of materials to their properties and uses. (g) properties: describes the behavior of materials when subjected to some external force or condition. 1-5Understand the two terms, Life Cycle Analysis (LCA) : products to determine their 。

    5、impact on the global environment. and Life Cycle Inventory (LCI); what in the main purpose of LCA? Dealing with the materials and processes involved in products in terms of cost and environmental impacts. 1-11What is the difference between design for assembly and design for disassembly? Design for a。

    6、ssembly (装配) emphasizes(着重) easy product assembly by robots and other automated equipment; Design for disassembly is a concept that places recycling at the beginning or design stage of the materials cycle to ensure that waste going into municipal landfills will be minimized. 1-14How can the stage of。

    7、 recycling/disposal become the first stage in the materials cycle? Resurrection of material through recyling; 1-18Understand the terms of metals, alloys and powdered metals. Metals are elements that can be defined by their properties, such as ductility(延展性), toughness(韧性), malleability(可锻性), electri。

    8、cal and heat conductivity(导热系数), and thermal expansion(热膨胀). Alloy(合金) consists(由组成) of metal elements combined with other elements. Powdered metals: alloying of metals involves melting(融化) the main ingredients(材料) together so that on cooling, the metal alloy is generally a nonporous(无孔的) solid. 1-1。

    9、9List the subgroups(子组) of metallics. Ferrous, Nonferrous and Powdered metal 1-20Give some examples for ferrous metals and nonferrous metals. Ferrous(黑色金属): Iron, Steel, Cast iron Nonferrous(有色金属): Cooper, Aluminum, Tin Powdered metals(粉末金属): Sintered(烧结的) steel, Sintered brass(黄铜) 1-21 Describe the。

    10、 main stages in preparing powdered metals Additives +metal matrix powder.blending.compacting.sinered.product. 1-26List the two types of plastics regarding processing method, and give some examples for each type. Thermosets (热固): epoxy(环氧树脂), phenolic(酚醛树脂), and polyurethane(聚 氨酯). Thermoplastics: ac。

    11、rylics(丙烯酸树脂), nylon and polyethylene(聚乙烯). 1-32List the typical properties of ceramics(陶瓷). Hard, brittle, stiff and have high melting points. 1-33What type of chemical bonds existing in ceramics? Ionic bonds and covalent bonding 1-49Understand the following terms; (a) catalyst(催化剂): a substance th。

    12、at enters into a chemical reaction in such a way as to make the reaction go faster without itself being consumed. (b) stoichiometry (化学计量数) : the branch of chemistry that deals with calculation of mass implied in chemical equations. (c) factor of safety (安全系数) : defined as the ratio of ultimate stre。

    13、ngth to allowable stress. (d) allowable stress(许用应力) (or design, working, safe stress): the maximum level of stress that a part will be permitted(允许) to endure under operation conditions. Module 2: 2-2What is matter(物质)? Anything that has mass and occupies volume. List the four states in which matte。

    14、r exists. Liquid, Solid, Gas and Plasma(等离子体) 2-7Describe the atomic structure (原子结构) , and exemplify (示例) the standard notation (标准符号)for expressing the composition of nucleus. Proton 质子, Neutron, Electron, . 2-9What is the Valence Electron(价电子)? Describe its influences on the chemical properties o。

    15、f an element and on the formation(构造) of chemical bonding. Valence Electron: Those electrons that occupy the outermost ring or shell from the nucleus.Valence is the capacity of an element to combine with other elements. 2-10Explain the following terms: ionization(离子化), ionization potential(电离势能), el。

    16、ectronegativity(电负性), electron affinity(电子亲和性), electron configuration(电子 排布). Ionization: the process of pulling away (removing) or adding valence electrons from a balanced or neutral atom. Ionization potential: the energy required to cause the loss of a valence electron. Electronegativity: the deg。

    17、ree to which an atom attracts electrons. Electron affinity: the same as electronegativity Electron configuration: the manner in which the electrons of an atom distribute themselves in the ground, or lowest energy, state 2-11Describe the electron structure with Classical Theory and Quantum Mechanical。

    18、 Theory (量子力学) , listing four quantum (量子数) numbers to characterize (描绘) an electron as to its size, shape and spatial orientation(空间环境). Classical Theory: the position of electrons in relation to the nucleus of an atom must be described in terms of a probability distribution(概率分布) Quantum Mechanica。

    19、l Theory: the basis for a new branch of physics.-the idea that light is quantizedthat it is made up of discrete amounts of energy. 1.shells or principle energy levels 主能级 klmnopq; 2.sublevel, subshell or orbital;次量子数(l=0,。n-1) 3.the number of energy states for each subshell;m1 磁量子数(s=1,p=3,d=5)0,+-1。

    20、+-2+-l 4.the electron spin moment(电子自旋矩)ms 自旋量子数.+-1/2 2-13Exemplify the relationship that can be used to determine the maximum number of electrons at any energy level. 2*n2 2-19What is the Chemical Bonding? What are the groups and subgroups of the chemical bounding? Chemical bonding: explained simp。

    21、ly as the end product of the interaction(相互作用) of the electrical forces of attraction and repulsion(排斥) between oppositely charged or similarly charged particles(带电粒子) of matter. Groups: Primary bonding(主价键) and secondary bonding Subgroups: Primary bonding: covalent bonding, ionic bonding, metallic 。

    22、bonding; Secondary Bonding: hydrogen boning, van der waals forces 2-20Understand the terms: (a) chemical bonding; (b) covalent or shared electron-pair bonding; (c) triple covalent: one in which two atoms share three of their electrons with each other. (d) ionic bonding; some elements actually swap o。

    23、r transfer electrons to other elements (e) metallic bonding; these are shielded from the strong attractive forces of the positive nucleus by the inner electrons and thus they bond to the nucleus relatively weakly (f) polar molecule: both the positive and negative charges are localized within the mol。

    24、ecule (g) nonpolar molecule; each atom shares the bonding electrons equally, producing an electrical charge distribution that is symmetrical about a line joining the two nuclei (j) hydrogen bond.the attraction between hydrogen atoms and lone pairs of nitrogen oxygen fluorine atoms on a different mol。

    25、ecule. 2-21What key word can be used to describe covalent bonding, ionic bonding, and metallic bonding? Ionic bonding:electron swapping Covalent bonding: electron sharing Metallic bonding: electron swarming(群集) 2-23How is the hydrogen bond formed? The covalent bonds between the hydrogen and oxygen a。

    26、toms in a water molecule, being polar, result in an asymmetrical charge distribution. The oxygen atom, having a slight negative charge, attracts a positive hydrogen atom belonging to an adjacent water molecule and forms a hydrogen bond. Exemplify the contributions of hydrogen bond to the properties 。

    27、and behavior of polymeric materials. The hydrogen bond affects the properties and behavior of materials. In thermoplastics, the hydrogen bond joins long, chainlike molecules to each other. These relatively weak bonds can be easily loosened or broken by heating, permitting flow(流动) to take place. 2-2。

    28、4List the two forms of microstructure(微观结构) of solid. What is the difference between them in terms of atomic arrangement? Amorphous (无定型的) : contains no repetitious (重复的) pattern of atom locations to any extent(范围). Crystalline (晶体) : possesses (拥有) an ordered, three-dimensional (三维的) , geometric ar。

    29、rangement that repeats itself. 2-26Define the terms: unit cells(晶胞), space lattices(空间点阵), and intercepts. Unite cell: used to describe the basic building block or basic geometric arrangement of atoms in a crystal. Space lattices: repeat the unit cell in all three dimensions, you create a crystallin。

    30、e structure with a definite pattern. This larger pattern of atoms in a single crystal is known as a space lattices. Intercepts: The sides of the box, labeled a, b, c, are the lattice parameters(晶格参数)in x, y, and z directions, respectively. These distances are also known as intercepts. 2-27What are t。

    31、he seven crystal systems? How many space lattices can atoms form? 1. simple cubic unit cell: 2. body-centered cubic; 3. face-centered cubic; 4. body-centered tetragonal(四边) crystal lattice unit cell; 5. hexagonal(六边) crystal system; 6. close-packed hexagonal crystal lattice unit cell 7. orthorhombic。

    32、 (斜方)and monoclinic(单斜) unit cell 2-28Describe the intercepts of cubic, tetragonal, and hexagonal crystal systems. Cubic: a=b=c 方位角相同 Tetragonal: a=bc 方位角 90 度 Hexagonal: a=a=ac 一个 120 两个 90 2-29What are the three basic cubic crystal systems? What are their abbreviations(缩写)? Simple cubicsc Body-cen。

    33、tered cubic-bcc Face-centered cubic-fcc 2-37【polymorphism(多态性), allotropy(同素异形), atomic packing factor(原子堆积 密度)Understand the terms: coordination number(配位数), polymorphism, allotropy, atomic packing factor and void fraction(空隙率). Coordination number (CN): to describe how many atoms are touching each。

    34、 other in a group of coordinated atoms. Polymorphism: the phenomenon that elements that exist in more than one crystal structure, depending primarily on the temperature. Allotropy: the same as polymorphism (change in the structure is reversible) Atomic packing factor: the ratio of the volume of atom。

    35、s present in a crystal to the volume of the unit cell. 2-39What is the difference in the crystal structures of polymorphic and allotropic(同素异形 materials? Polymorphic materials: dont possess this reverse(颠倒) phenomenon. Allotropic materials: can, after changing to one structure, reverse the phenomeno。

    36、n and return to its previous(早先的) structure. 2-42Describe the long-range-order (长程有序) materials and short-range-order materials. Long-range-order materials: the orderly arrangement of atoms extends throughout the entire materials, forming a regular grid like lattice(栅格) or pattern(模式). Short-range-o。

    37、rder materials: their order is limited to an atoms nearest neighboring atoms. 2-45What are crystal impurities(杂质) and crystal defects(缺陷)? Crystal impurities: there is some disorder in the atomic structure brought about by something other than impurity atoms. Crystal defects: a disorder of the cryst。

    38、al structure, which is brought about by some mechanism such as thermal agitation(剧烈振动) of the crystal during its formation, the effects of gravity, or the result of high-energy radiation(辐射). 2-46Group, subgroup the crystal imperfections. List two crystal impurities and three crystal defects. Group:。

    39、Crystalimpurities diffusion(扩散); the doping(掺杂质); Crystal defects: point defects; line defects and area defects 2-47What are substitutional solid solutions(置换固溶体) and interstitial solid solutions(填 隙式固溶体)? What are the conditions on which the two solid solutions form? Substitutional solid solutions:。

    40、 the solute atoms replace some of the solvent atoms in a crystal structure of the solvent. Interstitial solid solutions: if impurity atoms take up sites in the lattice structure(晶格) that are normally unfilled or unoccupied(空闲) by the solvent atoms, they form an interstitial solid solution. 2-48Defin。

    41、e the terms: solution, solvent, solute, mixture, solid solution, alloy, plastic alloy, diffusion, and vacancy(空白). Solution: a homogeneous(均匀的) mixture of chemically distinct(独特的) substances that forms a phase. Solvent: the substance present in the greatest proportion. Solute: the other substance or。

    42、 substances present. Mixture: a material that has no fixed composition and contains more than one phase. Solid solution: simply a solution in the solid state that consists of two kinds of atoms combined in one type of space lattice. Alloy: a combination of a metal and one or more other elements form。

    43、ing either a mixture or a solid solution. Plastic alloy: blends(混合) of polymers or copolymers(共聚) with other polymers or elastomers(弹性体). 2-61What are the functions of grain boundaries(晶界)? 1 act as sources of new crystal formation 2assist in diffusion of atoms thorough the solid 3offer resistance t。

    44、o the movement of dislocations and therefore modify the strength and the ability of materials to plastically deform 4act as sinks for vacancies 2-62Understand the terms: long-range-order materials, short-range-order materials, point defect, dislocation, and are defect. Long-range-order materials Sho。

    45、rt-range-order materials Point defect: only affect the small volume of the crystal surrounding a single lattice site. Dislocation: a line array of atoms along which there is some imperfection in the bonding of the atoms that causes distortion(变形) of the crystal structure. 3-1 Understand the followin。

    46、g terms: (a) Physical properties (b)Chemical properties (c)Mechanical properties (d)Stress (e)Strain (f)Deformation (g)Youngs modulus (h)Elastic deformation (i)Plastic deformation (a) Physical properties : Physical properties involve no change in the composition of the material. (b) Chemical propert。

    47、ies: Chemical properties are associated with the transformation of one material into another. (c) Mechanical properties(机械性能): a measure of a materials ability to carry or resist mechanical forces or stresses (d) Stress(应力) : stress, defined as the resistance offered by a material to external forces。

    48、 or loads, is measured in terms of the force exerted per area . (e) Strain(应变) : Strain , or unit deformation(形变), is defined as the unit change in the size or shape of material as a result of force on the material. (f) Deformation(形变) : Regardless of how small the force, a body will alter(改变) its s。

    49、hape when subjected to a force. In other words, the body will change its dimensions(大 小). The change in a physical dimension is called deformation. (g) Youngs modulus (杨氏模量) : Youngs modulus or elastic modulus (E) is defined as the ratio of engineering stress () to engineering strain () in the linear or elastic region of the stress-strain diagram(图表). (h) Elastic deformation(弹性形变): (i) Plastic deformation(塑性形变): When a material is loaded with external forces in the elastic region。

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